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Remember:  Hebrew is written and read from right to left.
There are 22 letter forms in the Hebrew Alphabet.  As a general rule the vowels in Hebrew are not written and have no letter form.  Some of the 22 letter forms take on more than one sound depending on whether or not there is a dot, called a dagesh, within the letter.  The letters whose sound changes depending on whether there is such a dot are: Beth (Veth), Jimal (Ghimal), Dalath (DHalath), Heh (Strong Heh), Kaf (Khaf), Peh (Feh), Shin (Seen), Tau (Thau).  Whenever there is a dot added within any of the other letters [except for Alaf] such as Mem or Zan, the sound does not change, but one does hold that sound longer in his mouth before reading the next letter.  So if there is a dot [dagesh] in the letter Mem, it would be read mmm as opposed to just a normal short m sound.  There are more distinctions than these; However, I have already listed way more distinctions than are currently pronounced in modern Hebrew.  The pronunciation I am following here is the pronunciation of Hebrew as preserved by the Jews who lived in Yemen.  Most scholars believe that the Jewish community of Yemen has preserved the most pristine pronunciation of Hebrew in existence.  Other communities, such as those from Iraq, Iran, Morocco, etc.. have also preserved pronunciations very similar to that of the Jews of Yemen.  I will try to point out the main differences between the major forms of pronunciation as we go along.

Click Here to hear the whole Hebrew Alaf-Beth:

Alaf-Beth  The Hebrew Alphabet
Click on any of the names of the letters in the chart below to hear how they are pronunced:

Ghimal  Gh like French R - Ghimal
Gh pronounced like the French R. Sounds  similar to a gargling sound in the  back of the throat.  This pronunciation is shared by Yemenite Jews, Iraqi Jews,  Iranian Jews, and some other communities. The Ashkenazi [Eastern European] Community  and 'Modern Hebrew' makes no distinction between Ghimal and Jimal.  They pronounce both Ghimal and Jimal as a normal G as in Good.
Jimal   J - Jimal
J as in Joy.  Communities
other than the Yemenite Jewish
community pronounce this as a
normal G as in Good.

Veth   V - Veth
V as in Valley.  Iraqi Jews pronounce this as a soft B sound. 

Beth  B - Beth
B as in boy.

Alaf   Normal sound of the vowel that will appear with it
The sound of Alaf depends on the vowel attached to this letter.
Waw  W - Waw
W as in Will.  Yemenite Jews, Iranian Jews, Iraqi Jews, Moroccan Jews, and other communities share this pronunciation.  The Ashkenazi [Eastern European] Jewish community and 'Modern Hebrew' pronounce this letter like a V as in Valley, the same as the letter Veth.
Strong Heh   Normal H made deeper in throat - Strong Heh

A normal H sound made deeper
in the throat and with more force.
I am not sure whether other
communities apart from the
Yemenite Jews make this
distinction.  It does not exist in
'Modern Hebrew.'
Heh  H - Heh

H as in House.  Many do not pronounce H at all in 'Modern Hebrew.'


DHaladh  TH as in THe - Thalath
TH as in the word THEY.  This sound
is made by exhaling while pressing
the tip of the tongue to the upper
front teeth while humming.  Yemenite
Jews, Iranian Jews, Iraqi Jews, and
some other communities have this
pronunciation in common.  The
Ashkenazi [Eastern European]
Community and 'Modern Hebrew'
makes no distinction between THalath
and Dalath.  They pronounce both as
D as in Door.

Daladh  D - Dalath
D as in Door.
Kaf   K - KafForm of Kaf when last letter in a word
K as in Kitchen.  The form of this letter on the right is how it appears when it is the last letter in a word.
 Jews from Eastern Europe and 'Modern Hebrew' both make no distinction between Kaf and Quf, pronouncing both as K as in Kitchen.

Yudh  Y - Yudh
When Yudh is the first letter in a
word or if there is a shwa or another vowel beneath it, it is pronounced as
Y as in You.  Otherwise it is
pronounced as EE as in We.

Tet   T made by raising back of and lowering tip of tongue - Tet
A sound similar to and somewhere between T and D.  This sound is made by elevating back of tongue while lowering the tip of tongue.  Yemenite Jews, Iranian Jews, Iraqi Jews, and other communities have similar pronunciations.  The Ashkenazi community and 'Modern Hebrew' makes no distinction between Tet and the letter Tau.
Hheth   H sound made by slightly constricting throat - Hheth
A sound similar to H, but made exhaling
just like while making a normal H sound,
though while constricting the back of the
throat.  Yemenite Jews, Iranian Jews,
Iraqi Jews, Moroccan Jews, and others
share this sound.  The Ashkenazi
community and many speakers of
'Modern Hebrew' make no distinction
between this letter and the letter Khaf.

Zahn   Z - Zahn
Z as in Zipper. 
Samakh  S - Samakh
S as in Snack.  There might be a distinction between the sound of Samakh and the sound of Seen, but I have not yet learned of such.  I have, however, heard that it is a tradition from Sinai that the letters Samakh and Seen make the same sound.  I have my own way of understanding how this may be acceptable.
Nun   N - NunNun when last letter in a word
N as in Nice. 
The form of this
letter on the right is how it
appears when it is the last
letter in a word.

Mem   M - MemMem when last letter in a word
M as in Mother.
The form of this letter on the right is how it appears when it is the last letter in a word.
Lamad   L - Lamadh
L as in Life.
Khaf   Kh as in Scottish word Loch or the name Bach - KhafKhaf when last letter in a word
Kh as in the Scottish word Loch or the name of the musician Bach.  This sound is made by exhaling while at the same time pressing the far back of one's tongue up to the roof of the back of one's throat.  The form of this letter on the right is how it appears when it is the last letter in a word.

Quf   G as in good - Quf
G as in Good.  Iranian Jews, Iraqi Jews, and some other communities pronounce this as a dry sound between G and K made deep in the back of the throat.  The Ashkenazi Community and 'Modern Hebrew' make no distinction between this letter and the letter Kaf.  They pronounce this letter as K, as in Kick.
Ssadeh  S sound made while lifting back of tongue - SsadheSsadhe when it's the last letter in a word
An S sound made while lifting
the back of tongue and
lowering the tip of the tongue.
Yemenite Jews, Iranian Jews,
Iraqi Jews, and some other
communities preserved this
sound.  The Ashkenazi
community and 'Modern
Hebrew' pronounce this as TS
as in StreeTS. 
The form of this
letter on the right is how it
appears when it is the last
letter in a word.

Feh   F - FehFeh when last letter in a word
F as in Free.
The form of this letter on the right is how it appears when it is the last letter in a word.
Peh  P - PehPeh as appears when last letter in a word
P as in Paper.
Communities around Iraq had lost
the distinction between Peh and
Feh.  They pronounced Peh as
Feh.  They have since restored
Peh to their pronunciation.
Maybe other communities should
act similarly with some other letters.
The form of this letter on the right
is how it appears when it is the
last letter in a word.

Ahn  Deep Vowel sound made with constricted throat
A sound, depending on whatever vowel is attached to this letter, that is made while exhaling and constricting the deep lower part of the throat.  This is similar to the sound made when a doctor presses a wooden stick down your throat and says "Say Ahhh."
Thau   Th as in Three - Thaw
TH as in THree.  This sound is made by pressing the tip of the tongue on the front upper teeth and
exhaling without humming.  Jews of Yemen, Iran,
Iraq, Morocco, and some other communities, had
this pronunciation in common.  The Ashkenazi
Community pronounces this letter as S as in Snake. They make no distinction between this letter and Seen and Samakh.  'Modern Hebrew'  makes no distinction between this letter and Tau.
Tau  T as in Take - Taw
T as in Teach.
Seen   S as in Snow - Seen
S as in Save.
Shin   Sh as in She - Shin
Sh as in Shore. 
Resh   R made by tongue touching front teeth like Spanish R - Resh
An R pronounced like the Spanish R and the Arabic R.  Made by 'rolling' the tip of the tongue on the front upper teeth.  This pronunciation was shared by almost all communities until Jews came to the United States and adopted the 'English R.'  'Modern Hebrew' adopted the 'French R' for this letter.  The 'French R' is actually the correct pronunciation of Ghimal.


VOWELS: 
Hear all their sounds.
In the following section concerning Hebrew vowels, the Hebrew letter Alaf is simply representing any of the other Hebrew letters.  When reading Hebrew, first one pronounces the sound of the letter, and then the sound of the vowel underneath or above it.  The only exceptions I recall are when Heh, Hheth, or Ahn are the last letter in a word.  In these cases, one would first pronounce the sound of the vowel under the letter, and then the sound of the letter itself, either Heh, Hhet, or Ahn.
QamahssQamass - aaw sound
An AW sound, and in Fall.  Yemenite Jewish
pronunciation and many Ashkenazi communities share this pronunciation in common.  All other
communities make no distinction between Qamahss and Phatahh, as far as I know.

PhatahhPhatahh - aah sound
An AH sound, as in Father.
SagolSegol - Yemenites say it like a Phatahh, Ashkenazim like Eeh, All others pronounce it the same as they pronounce their Serey - as an Eeh sound.
An AH sound, as in Father.  The same sound as Phatahh; This is because in Yemenite Jewish tradition the Sagol simply doesn't exist.  Ashkenazim and everyone else (as far as I know) pronounce Sagal like EH, just like the Ssehra in non-Ashkenazi Hebrew.
HheereeqHheeyraq - Eee sound
An Eey sound, as in We.
SsehraSerey - Eeh sound.  Ashkenazim pronounce this as aay.
An EH sound, as in Fed.  Many Ashkenazim pronounce this as Ay as in They.
ShwaShwa - a break in pronouncing a word.
A pause or break in the pronunciation of a word.
ShewruqWaw Shewraq - eew/u sound[shewruq]
An EW / U sound as in Chew or Through.
ShewruqShewraq - eew/u sound[qubewss]
An EW / U sound as in Chew or Through.

HhohlomHholam - Ooh sound[hhuhsehr]
An OH sound as in Window.  Some Ashkenazim pronounce this as OY, as in Toy.
HhohlomWaw Hholam - Ooh sound[maleh]
An OH sound as in Window, but without pronouncing the w sound after the o.  Some Ashkenazim pronounce this as OY, as in Toy.

SIMILAR SOUNDS:





Khaf Khaf and GhimalGhimal
KhafKaf  and HhetHheth
Hear the difference.
HhetHhetand HehHeh
Hear the difference.
Tet Tet and TauTaw
Hear the difference.
TetTet and DaladhDhaladh
Hear the difference.
ReshResh and GhimalGhimal
Hear the difference.


SeenSeen SamakhSamakh and SsadheSsadhe
Hear the difference.
DHaladhDhaladh and THauThaw
Hear the difference.
FehFeh and THauThaw
Hear the difference.
DHaladhDhaladh and ZahnZahn
Hear the difference.
Seen Samakh and THau
Hear the difference.
Phatahh and Qamahss
Hear the difference.
Qamahss and
Hhohlom
Hhohlom and Shewruq
Hear the difference.






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