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Path of Abraham

The Singularity of the Creator

Hear Israel!  The TRANSCENDENT is our Mightily-Venerable-Authority; The TRANSCENDENT is ONE. (Deuteronomy 6:4)
 
All effects require a cause.  So, what is the cause of the Creator? The question is inapplicable to the Creator for one reason:  such a question only applies to whatever is subject to time / space. Only whatever is subject to time / space requires having been caused at a certain "point in time." REALIZE: That which transcends time / space transcends all affections of time / space, including plurality, physicality, and change;  Such a ONE is the Cause of all causes.
 
THEREFORE, His Transcendence, His Authority, His Immutability, His Wisdom, His Knowledge, His Unity, and His Existence are all absolutely ONE and the SAME with regard to His Being - without any distinction or duplicity in any sense of the word.

The information below can be learned through thorough study of the historical Jewish Bible (Tanakh).  In the Mishneh Torah one can find these matters clarified as being obligatory for us to accept and know in chapter 1 of Hilkoth Yesodei haTorah (Foundational Laws of Torah - PLEASE keep in mind that translations are imperfect).  You would also do well to read Mechon-Mamre.org's article "The Nature of God."  Below is a listing of the major principles without souce references.
 

 
ESSENTIALS OF [BIBLICAL] MONOTHEISM
KNOW 'HIS' EXISTENCE
Reality requires a 'Foundation.'  All things existing depend upon the Absolute Independent Existence of the One Creator.  'His' existence is nothing like the existence of all other things - it is incomparable.  'His' Being can not be truly expressed in words.  We must say 'He exists' so as not to say that 'He' does not exist.  'His' Existence and Unity are one and the same.  We indicate this Truth with multiple words because the realm of creation is a realm of plurality; and there is no way to accurately speak of 'His' splended Unity in this realm of plurality.  This is also true of all the following 'attributes' listed below.  None of 'His' attributes represent divisions or distinctions within 'His' Being.  They are all one and the same with (synonymous to) His Being or reflect how we perceive that 'He' exists according to the expression of His Will via 'His' works within creation.  Those 'attributes' which are all one and the same with 'His' Being are expressed in plural words only because no Absolute Unity as 'He' can be expressed by one word nor exists within the physical realm in which we live.  There is no other way to speak of this in human language other than with multiple words.  This is because of the limitation and inadequacy of language and our existence as created beings.
KNOW 'HIS' UNITY
None of the following "ASPECTS" of His Unity represent parts or distinctions within His Oneness.  Concerning the Reality of His Being all these "aspects" are one and the same without any distinction - His Existence / Being.  Since everything within creation is in some way plural, consequently even when discussing His Absolute Unity we are forced to use a plurality of words.  This is because of the limitations of human language and the human mind.  This limitation itself testifies to the incomparability of His Unity, since words are created, but He is not.
 
'He' TRANSCENDS all created things.  Neither time and space nor any other factors of creation apply to Him.  He is not subject to anything except His own unchanging Self.  Therefore we say 'He is:'
 
Eternal,
All-powerful (with absolute power),
All-knowing (with absolute knowledge),
Alive (Self-existent),
All-sufficient (needs aid from nothing),
Absolute Creator (the Master, Creator, and Sustainer of all forms of existence), All-authoritative (all truth, justice, and rights depend on 'His' Will)
 
Absolutely Independent (is not influenced and is without any accident)
Non-material (..not within time or space; without any form or body; 'He' is not male, female, any combination of the two, or any other gender),
Non-spatial (is not located anywhere in space, is not contained, does not fill anything, is not a 'force' in any physical thing),
Invisible (since 'He' is not physical he can and never will be seen.  It is not even that 'He' is physical but 'clear' - like air.),
Immutable (does not change since change is dependent upon factors of physical reality - time, space, motion; He transcends all these.  Any change regarding 'Him' would mean imperfection.  He has no need for motion, to take up space, etc...)
Without partners (for plurality can only apply to existences subject to time, space, and other factors of creation.  Additionally, a need of a partner[s] would mean 'He' would be lacking [incomplete/imperfect], thus negating 'His' being All-sufficient, All-powerful, Independent, as well as Incorporeity.  Plural independent 'wills' equal in transcendence can not exist together.  They would cancel each other's power, or else one would be more powerful than the other, in which case one of them would not truly be transcendent.  'He' knows our thoughts and needs without the use of a mediator or middle-man; and 'His' mercy, compassion, and grace are sufficient without the help of another.)
 
HE IS ONE:  A person can know, due to the above, that no form or concept of a plurality, plural unity, or compound unity apply to 'Him' - for any concept of plurality can only apply to existences that are subject to time, space, and the other factors of physical existence, but 'He,' blessed is 'He,' transcends all these.  Therefore we say 'He' is ONE - an Absolute Transcendent Unity - for there is no other way to indicate this in any language; yet 'He' is not a numerical one which could be pointed to or counted.  If we said 'Zero' then it would be implied that 'He' does not exist; but 'His' existence is more absolute and true than any other; for all depend upon 'Him' for existence, but 'He' depends on nothing.  Nothing comes from zero (nothing).  One precedes Two or any other plurality.  ONE precedes all else; and ONE should we serve.
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It is a common assumption and mistake to think that the Creator is "infinite" or "all-powerful" in the sense that He can do anything imaginable. This is false. It is clearly written in the 13 principles of our faith that the Creator is not a 'one' which can be infinitly divided. So that's one type of infinity that doesn't apply to the Creator. One could say that the Creator is "infinite" in his perfection and authority, but I wouldn't go much further.

The Creator is definately NOT "infinite" numerically or spacially, nor "infinite" in the sense that He "can" do anything imaginable. Can He make both athiesm and theism correct? Can He kill Himself? Can He make moral-absolutism and moral-relativism both correct at the same time?  Can He lie (see Numbers 23:19)? Can He change (see Malachi 3:6)? Heaven forbid!

The above are logical absurdities. (If He could lie or change, then how can we rely on Him any more than we rely on other people?  If He is more powerful than people and can lie and change, I would trust Him even less than people.)  The fact that the Creator "can not" do these things does not decrease His perfection; rather, it magnifies His exaltedness above imperfection -- this only limits Him from imperfection. If He is perfect "within" Himself, then He has no need for improvement or change, and He is immune from imperfection and degeneration -- hince, He is immutable.

The fact that the Creator is limited to His own perfection is just as true as the Reality of His Existence Itself -- for these 2 are absolutely one and the same with no distinction whatsoever. He is limited to Himself ~ His own unchanging perfection. In short, as http://www.mesora.org/godunlimitedii.html states, 'G-d' is limited to being 'G-d;'

Exalted is He above all our profane imaginations and all our highest praise.
SERVE 'HIM' ALONE
 
Pray to none other.
 
Do not use mediators or a 'middle-man' through which you direct your prayers or service.
 
To none other Do Acts of Divine Service, including:
 
To none other Prostrate in divine adoration
 
To none other Sacrifice
 
To none other Offer a Burning Offering
 
To none other Offer a Poured out Offering
 
To 'He' alone be your greatest love, fear, trust, and whole-hearted devotion.
 
"I shall come with Your mighty acts, O' TRANSCENDENT-POWER my Divine-Master, I shall mention Your righteousness alone." (Psalm 71:16)

 
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The Almighty Creator is ONE. His Oneness is not a oneness which is composed of parts, multiple dimensions, nor which may be divided.  All types of division and separation can only be applied to created things which are subject to time and space.  His Oneness transcends numerical value.  We say He is One to express total lack of plurality.   All plurality concerning the Creator exists only in our perception of His many mighty deeds which express His Existence to creation.  His Oneness is not comparable to the types of compound unities found within creation:  Isaiah 40:18, 25;  46:5; Jeremiah 10:6-7; Deuter. 33:26; Exodus 8:10;  Psalm 40:5 

The Almighty is not contained within time, space, or any physicality - for He created time and space and all that exists within it.  Isaiah 66:1; 2 Chronicles 2:6, 6:18  Therefore the Almighty is not a man nor a body, nor a force or a power in a body - for man and all types of bodies, and whatever exists within a body, are all contained within time and space.  Numbers 23:19; Hosea 11:9

The Almighty will never become a man, for this would mean that He changed.  The Almighty does not change, for change only occurs with things subject to time and space;  He is subject to nothing apart from His own unchanging Self. Malachi 3:6; Psalm 102:26-27

He expresses and reveals Himself through His creation; some of creation, people included, express more about Him than others.  We make a distinction between the expression and the One Expressed, the revelation and the One Revealed.   He is not able to be comprehended by created beings.  It is impossible to truly understand what He is; therefore, we come to know Him by understanding what He is not. We believe that one is to pray to the Transcendent Creator alone, and only serve Him with all one's heart, life, and resources.  We believe idolatry is the worship of anything created - anything contained within time or space.   Deuteronomy 6:4-5;

 

Are you asking yourself: “But we read in the Bible that He is has been ‘seen’ appearing in physical forms such as a burning bush, a pillar of cloud or fire, and even as a man.  How then could these ‘divine’ manifestations of G-d have occurred if G-d does not change and subject Himself to time and space?”  If you have such questions, CLICK HERE or see "Biblical Idioms Misunderstood."

The following are rhetorical questions in the Hebrew Bible:
 
"To whom can you liken G-d; What likeness can you attribute to Him?" - Isaiah 40:18
 
"To whom can you liken Me that I should be his equal?' says the Holy One." -Isaiah 40:25
 
"Thus says the L-RD, 'The heavens are My 'throne,' and the earth My 'footstool;' What house can you build for Me?  What place could be My resting place?" - Isaiah 66:1
 
"Really, would G-d dwell on earth with man?  Behold, the heavens and the heaven of heavens can not contain You; Certainly not this House that I have built." - II Chronicles 6:18
 
"G-d is not a man that He should lie, nor a son of man that He should relent.." - Numbers 23:19
 
"I will not carry out My wrath, I will not recant and destroy Ephraim, for I am G-d and not a man, the Holy One in your midst; I will not enter a city." - Hosea 11:9
 
"For I am the ALL-TRANSCENDENT, and I do not change; Therefore you, sons of Jacob, you have not been destroyed."  - Malachi 3:6
 
"Egypt is man and not G-d.." - Isaiah 31:3
 
"..sword of one who is NOT a man, and the sword of one who is NOT a human will consume him.." - Isaiah 31:8
 
"The sword of the L-RD..." - Isaiah 34:6

 
"We do not accept the words of philosophers who say that the 'Realm of Divinity' is divided into various levels of authority.  We believe there is only one Divine level of authority, only one 'G-d' that controls every corporeal thing.  Whoever is deceived by their philosophic theories is considered heretical [apeyqores]." - Yeehhud (Singularity of G-d); Sefer Kuzari

Who must be taught the Unity of G-d? "...All people must be informed, and even children must be trained...these are things which must be explained to every one according to his ability..." - More haNevukhim  -- Click to read this whole chapter.

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